CICAS Workshop December 9–10, 2004
Appendix B2
Summary of Breakout Session #2 (Groups 1–6)

Note: These notes record remarks made in six breakout groups without indicating the amount of consensus regarding the remarks either within or among the different groups.

Research Needs Level of Priority (High, Medium, Low) Beginning dates (Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall CY) Check here if it MUST begin in FY 05 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
What is it dependent for?
Driver Performance
1) Characterize normal and non-normal driver maneuvers at intersections in varied, real-world test conditions H-32
M-4
L-1
FY 05-2
Spring 05-5
FY 06-1
24 What are the dependencies?
  • This activity is needed in order to determine the alert timing parameters
What is it dependent on?
  • There is some ongoing work (e.g., the 100 car study)
  • Need to determine what data is available for mining and what data needs to be collected
  • Need for development of data collection systems and amplified naturalistic driving conditions through a set of intersections
  • Need to evaluate and develop collection techniques (e.g., observational, infrastructure and vehicle sensing)
What is it dependent for?
  • Needed to measure the before baseline in order to measure the effect of adding countermeasures
  • Absolutely critical to the driver interface (DVI, DII)
2) Determine alert timing parameters H-23
M-10
L-1
FY 05-1
Winter 05-2
Spring 05-1
Summer 05-1
FY 06-1
FY 07-1
15 What are the dependencies?
  • This activity is needed in order to test out algorithms for models and operational systems
What is it dependent on?
  • There is some ongoing work (e.g., the 100 car study)
  • Need to define what are we warning the drivers about
  • Depends on characterizing normal and non-normal driver maneuvers at intersections in varied, real-world test conditions
  • Need a better handle on "acceptable safe vs. unsafe" gaps
  • Current algorithms need to be refined based on how driver is behaving/driver characteristics data
What is it dependent for?
  • Absolutely critical to the driver interface done by VTTI, General Dynamics
3) Measure time-to-collision (TTC) overestimation by driver
Note: This activity is a subset of question #1
H-9
M-12
L-7
FY 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 06-1
7 What are the dependencies?
  • This activity is needed in order to determine the alert timing parameters
What is it dependent on?
  • This will be different for different intersections, but will be less of an issue for simple scenarios
  • Depends on current research results and may be a need to build on that existing research
  • Some work being done by CAMP and will be public soon
  • Determine gap selection
  • Need a measure of drivers normal behavior
What is it dependent for?
  • Critical for determining LTAP countermeasures
4) Determine effectiveness of various interface approaches and their interaction with varied timing approaches
Note: This is part of normal testing
H-21
M-11
L-4
Ongoing
FY 05-1
Spring 05-1
10 What are the dependencies?
  • Needed to start optimizing the DII for a broad set of drivers
What is it dependent on?
  • Coordinate and build on current work including, MN & CA efforts in FY 05
  • Use information from previous FOT
  • DVI work being done by CAMP, VTTI, others
  • Need to work on the issue regarding the vehicle not sending information to the infrastructure for it to make a decision
What is it dependent for?
  • This is part of the normal testing process, but may need to be expanded
5) Investigate the effects of driver distraction and inattention
Note: This is part of normal testing
H-10
M-8
L-10
Winter 05-1
Spring 06-1
9 What are the dependencies?
  • Important for determining algorithm timing
  • Evaluation of FOT
What is it dependent on?
  • Dependent on application
  • Current data collection efforts (e.g., the 100 car study)
  • Long term data collection process needed
  • Depends on #2
What is it dependent for?
  • All SCP crashes (unwillful) involve this
  • This is part of the normal testing process, but may need to be expanded
6) Investigate long-term driver behavioral adaptation, either positive or negative
Note: This item duplicates #28
H-10
M-14
L-10
FY 05-1
FY 07-2
Spring 07-2
FY 09-1
3 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Need an operational system first
  • Needs to be examined long term, > 5 year period
  • This data will be provided by the FOT
  • Methodology needed for FOT design
  • The DII needs to be optimized
  • Depends on current research results and mining of national databases
What is it dependent for?
Driver Interface
7) Develop design guidelines and performance specifications for DII H-19
M-11
L-2
Ongoing
FY 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 06-1
Fall 06-1
Fall 09-1
12 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #4 and #8
  • Need an operational test system first because effectiveness cannot be measured until prototypes are selected
  • Tests should be performed on a small number of the intersections pre-FOT
  • This should only be done in conjunction with DVI
What is it dependent for?
8) Measure effectiveness of DII H-18
M-9
L-4
Spring 05-2
Ongoing
8 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #4 and #8
  • Need an operational test system first because effectiveness cannot be measured until prototypes are selected
  • Tests should be performed on a small number of the intersections pre-FOT
  • This should only be done in conjunction with DVI
  • Work should start now and will require iterations
  • First test effectiveness in driving simulator then test in "live" intersection
  • This activity is fundamental, but less time critical
  • Depends on current research results
What is it dependent for?
  • Evaluations performed after FOT
9) Determine preferred modality (combination of auditory, visual, and haptic alerts) of DVI
Note: This is restated in #10.
H-16
M-8
L-7
FY 06-2
Winter 06-1
Fall06-1
FY 07-1
7 What are the dependencies?
  • Establishing minimum performance requirements
What is it dependent on?
  • There is already good knowledge of this and existing research findings should be leveraged, as well as ongoing work
  • Evaluate after the test vehicle is built
  • This should only be done in conjunction with DVI
What is it dependent for?
  • This is an area where OEM's will differentiate
10) Specify of haptic alerts
Note: This is a subset of #9
H-2
M-9
L-8
Winter 05-1
Fall 06-1
3 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Some work already underway, but more research needs to be done
  • Not sure this is applicable to CICAS
  • This is an OEM issue
What is it dependent for?
11) Refine message content and timing H-16
M-7
L-2
Winter 05-1
FY 06-1
Summer 06-1
Fall 07-1
3 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #4
  • Need to continue current efforts and refine concepts
  • Cannot refine until first message set defined
  • Each application will require different message sets with overlap
  • This is an OEM issue
What is it dependent for?
Technology Development
12) Add CICAS capabilities or add CICAS interfaces to legacy and advanced traffic controllers H-26
M-5
L-3
FY 05-3
Winter 05-2
Spring 05-1
Fall 06-1
15 What are the dependencies?
  • Signal timings
What is it dependent on?
  • Requires specifications on timings
  • Need to provide this critical data NOW!
What is it dependent for?
  • Need to provide this critical data now to show operational value of CICAS
  • Needed for prototype system
13) Determine requirements for accuracy of vehicle position H-32
M-1
L-1
FY 05-2
Winter 05-2
Spring 05-1
Spring 06-1
Summer 06-1
19 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #1
  • Need to develop system architecture and requirements for both infrastructure and vehicle
  • Define levels of accuracy absolute/lane level/relative
  • VTTI has developed some specifications, need to begin providing this for SCP
  • This requires a new detector system
What is it dependent for?
  • Critical to all aspects of CICAS related to timing issues
14) Determine requirements for accuracy of vehicle speed, acceleration, braking status, heading angle by in-vehicle sensors, by positioning systems H-24
M-3
L-6
FY 05-2
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
12 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #1
  • VTTI has developed some specifications, need to begin providing this for SCP
  • Important for infrastructure only models, because this is an infrastructure sensor issue
  • Need requirements for measuring accuracy of all sensors and need concept of operations
  • Vehicle position and kinematics dependent on naturalistic data, other data, prototypes, functional requirements
  • Is iteration of alert algorithms what follows? Need to answer, "What sensors can get you what you need?"
What is it dependent for?
  • Critical to all aspects of CICAS related to timing issues
  • Development of state map
15) Specify infrastructure-vehicle communications H-19
M-7
L-2
FY 05-2
Spring 05-1
9 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Need to understand budget for deployment
  • Need to answer, "What role does DSRC play here?" Need to start discussions about DSRC Message Frequency, testing, etc.
  • OK to assume DSRC is short-term
  • Specify communication parameters, but not specific technology.
  • SAE message committee final specification follows testing
  • CICAS protocols should start now
  • Need to standardize the message set
What is it dependent for?
16) Detection of pedestrians and bicyclists in the intersection H-13
M-12
L-6
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 06-4
9 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Research needs to be done for detection
  • Is this an ITS Tier 2 issue
  • Need a long lead time and this is technically very challenging
  • See UMN work
  • Applies only to GAP acceptance
What is it dependent for?
  • Clearly they matter, but should CICAS be responsible?
17) Design CICAS protocols to be run over DSRC; design DSRC MAC layer protocols for high density traffic conditions H-16
M-4
L-3
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
Winter 06-1
FY 07-1
4 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Let's see if it works first
  • Given deployment schedule will be 802.11 xxx anyway
  • Much of this work is being done in VII
  • DSRC is NOT proven and this will be an issue
  • Communication issue, VSC2 will do this
  • Systems architecture and requirements needed
  • Message set is main issue
What is it dependent for?
18) Determine dynamic power and data rate control strategies H-6
M-12
L-9
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
Winter 06-1
6 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Interdependent with # 17
  • DSRC and VII design issue
  • Dependent on high DSRC penetration
  • Being worked on, VII issue with ASME
  • Need prototype DSRC radio first
What is it dependent for?
19) Define CICAS message sets and dictionaries for submission to standards developing organizations H-10
M-9
L-6
FY 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 09-2
9 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #4 and #15
  • Need to get concepts refined for detailed design
  • Message sets define further work
What is it dependent for?
System Integration
20) Determine whether the performance characteristics of various systems architecture meet specified requirements H-13
M-7
L-4
Spring 05-1
Summer 05-1
FY 06-2
FY 07-1
4 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Depends on #4 and #11
  • Need to follow a Systems Engineering process
  • This is not well defined and depends on concepts refinement then analysis of architecture and specifications
What is it dependent for?
21) Improve methods to fuse data from multiple sensors on vehicle position H-18
M-9
L-4
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 06-1
Summer 06-1
8 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Dependent on #15 and #16
  • Operational systems must precede this event and must be done prior to determining the worthiness of the project
  • For mixed vehicular/infrastructure this is key, but need to solve same detection problems
  • Challenging problem..must work with sparse and dense data
  • Vehicle data depends on DSRC deployment
  • Functional allocation dependent on data from vehicle
  • Cost effectiveness to put inside a vehicle is important
What is it dependent for?
Decision Rules
22) Collect baseline data at live intersections
Note: This item duplicates #1
H-25
M-7
FY 05-1
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 06-1
Winter 06-1
7 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Must start selecting intersections now in order to get baseline data for analysis in 05/06
  • Can begin immediately especially benchmarking of available technologies for flexible implementation
  • Some work is ongoing
  • Needed for driver behavior analysis
  • Depends on understanding behavior and having an architecture
  • Dependent on delivery surrogate safety measures a system for collecting the SSM data
  • This is needed to create state map and should be started now
  • This depends on the sensor suite used
  • Legacy system upgrades, vehicle data comm., control strategies
What is it dependent for?
23) Analyze existing data, including SAVME, VTTI Naturalistic driving study, case study of Crashworthiness Data System (CDS) data (none of which appear promising)
Note: This item duplicates #6
H-13
M-13
L-5
Spring 05-1
Winter 06-1
7 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • This may provide a baseline investigation on what worked
  • Key point is none appear promising, not sure that existing data can be mined to extract needed information, I don't think it will give any significant information
  • This is a cheap and easy way to increase the value of the databases, biased towards intersection behaviors
  • May help immediately with needs identification for draft functional requirements
  • Need to identify data requirements and data collection methods
  • Need the development of a more advanced infrastructure data collection system and to run a naturalistic driver study through a set of monitored intersections
  • Look at 100 car study 43,000 hours, 100,000's of intersections (of all kinds) crossing accessible in short term
What is it dependent for?
24) Develop understanding of false alarm rate, miss rate, driver acceptance of computations H-25
M-7
L-4
Winter 05-1
Spring 05-1
FY 06-2
7 What are the dependencies? What is it dependent on?
  • Should occur after FOT
  • Prototype subsystem needed now and available test bed
  • Second phase issue: need to evaluate early test results
  • Dependent on driver reaction to technology reliability
  • Hard to classify "hit" or "miss" when no event occurs ???
What is it dependent for?
Impact
25) Measure CICAS safety benefits in comparison to other traffic control devices H-14
M-8
L-5
Spring 05-1
FY 07-1
FY 09-1
3 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • No way to accurately model without well designed FOT
  • Cannot do until CICAS performance is quantified (otherwise just a guess)
  • Need this before the FOT and add as baseline condition
  • Measure CICAS benefits in comparison to unsignalized intersections
What is it dependent for?
26) Refine economic impact models of intersection collisions H-7
M-7
L-9
Spring 05-1
FY 09-1
3 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Need for cost benefits analysis
  • No way to model without well designed FOT
  • Need this before the FOT
What is it dependent for?
27) Determine costs and benefits of alternative CICAS approaches H-12
M-8
L-5
FY 07-1
Spring 07-1
FY 09-1
1 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Need available data, especially from car companies and OEM's, ROI, User Demand
  • Cannot do until optimal set is deployed and costs determined
What is it dependent for?
28) Investigate long-term driver behavioral adaptation, either positive or negative
Note: This item duplicates #6
H-6
M-2
L-5
FY 09-1 1 What are the dependencies?
What is it dependent on?
  • Need this for FOT
  • Evaluate prototype before we can start the adaptation issue
What is it dependent for?

Additional Research Needs Identified

Driver Performance

  • Assess impact of interaction between in-vehicle and out of window information (H, mid FY 05)
  • Determine the importance of various driver/vehicle/environmental parameters on driver behavior.
  • Need simulations of presentation of warning to drivers (effects of blocking)
  • Simulation could be valuable, need behavioral models that include explanation vehicle for warnings or alerts, timing, traffic flows

Driver Interface

  • Need integrated DII and DVI vision (H)
  • Specify DII scope
  • Need simultaneous DII and DVI and assessment of potential conflicts
  • DVI/DII harmonization as a starting point (H, FY 05)
  • Need to find answers to the following questions:
    • What happens when you have a DVI and a DII together? (M)
    • Which parameters are important?
    • When is a DVI more effective that a DII ..and vice versa? (H, should begin in FY 06)
    • Which applications should use a DVI vs. a DII? (H, FY 05)

Technology Development

  • Develop vehicle classification and deceleration rate sensors for infrastructure (H, Early FY 05)
  • Develop real world test bed (H, now)
  • Intersection map design tools to build (H)
  • Testing DSRC systems - compatibility (H, FY 05)
  • Develop new control algorithms for traffic signal controller including: (H)
    1. if/then assessment of traffic conditions
    2. smart transit priority
  • Develop new detector (tracking) - decide on requirements (H)
  • Develop compatible state maps (H, FY 05)
  • Develop FOT design methods for benefits? (H, FY 05)
  • Investigate DSRC limitations for CICAS, including interference of RADAR and DSRC (H, FY 05)

Decision Rules

  • Define how to operate CICAS in combination with adaptive signal controllers (H)
  • Develop safety surrogates – for NGSIM stakeholder input on violations – surrogate measure

Field Operational Test

  • Develop FOT concepts and goals - evaluation goals (H, FY 05)
  • Identify problem intersections based on FARS (national scan) and State data (e.g., 80% of the problem = 20% of the intersections) (M)
  • Need microscopic crash analysis (H FY 05)

Parking Lot Items

Item or Issue Group
Intellectual property rights in CICAS program 1
Bring in traffic signal industry representation 1
Data mining and analysis 3
Investigate standards for system deployment (High) 3
Consider local short range system positioning 3
Intersection to intersection communications 3
Better definition of accident problem 6
Evaluation process 6

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