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The Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office is a program office at the USDOT that is located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology.  We manage a multimodal ITS research program in cooperation with our modal partners from all surface transportation modes, incl. transit, highways, rail, etc. within USDOT.
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In this report, the USDOT not only analyzed the condition and performance of our transportation system today, but forecasted how it will look and perform 30 years from now if we fail to develop a new game plan.
“Beyond Traffic” focuses on many freight and technology issues.
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The USDOT’s landmark report, “Beyond Traffic” Focuses on many freight and technology issues.
Our freight system is a multimodal engine that we depend on to drive our economy.  Our nation’s ability to compete in the global market and to meet the needs and expectation of consumers and industry depend on a robust multimodal freight transportation system. 
Our freight system moves approximately 54 tones of goods per American per year. As the population grows and economy  (both population and economy are expecting to double over the next 30 years), demand for freight will grow as well strain an already challenged system.
Growth in freight    demand will put increased pressure on freight bottlenecks throughout the country.  In 2012 approximately 10 million trucks moved more than 13 billion tons of freight across America’s highways. These trucks were major contributors to congestion on 4,500 of the busiest highway miles in the nation.
By 2040 nearly 30,000 miles of the busiest highways will be clogged on a daily basis. Truck congestion alone wastes $27 billion in times and fuel annually.
Areas with the worst truck delays include major international gateway hubs such as LA, NY, Chicago as well as major distribution centers such as Atlanta, Charlotte, Dallas-Ft Worth, Denver, Columbus, OH and Portland Oregon. 
At 2 major Mexican border crossings, it takes trucks on average nearly an hour to enter the US.
Assuming no changes in network capacity, increases in truck and passenger vehicle traffic are forecast to expand areas of recurring peak-period congestion by 37 percent of the NHS in 2040 compared to 11 percent in 2007.  This will slow traffic by 21,000 miles on the NHS and create stop and go conditions on an additional 40,000 miles.
How will we move better?
 
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The Grow America Act will make critical investment to help improve the safe and efficient movement of freight across all modes of transportation – highway, rail, port, and pipeline.  The nation’s 122 million households and 7.4 million businesses are part of an enormous economy that demands the efficient movement of freight for their livelihoods. Without new investment, supply chains degrade, hindering job growth and harming retailers, manufacturing, and the millions of American consumers who need their good to be transported efficiently and affordably.
The U.S. transportation system moves more than 54 million tons of goods worth nearly $48 billion each day or almost 63 tons of freight per person per year.  Freight tonnage is expected to increase by 45 percent by 2040, requiring additional capacity to our highways, railroads, ports, and pipelines and improvements to our multi-modal connections to move freight efficiently and keep the economy growing.
By 2040, it is estimated that the nation’s system will be required to haul an additional 9 tons of freight across the country.  Freight transportation is an important part of our economy with over 44 million jobs directly dependent on freight transportation.
The map shows the annual freight flow tonnage by National Highway System, Railroads, Inland Waterways (2010).   It comes from the FHWA Freight Analysis Framework  (FAF) which helps the USDOT provide a comprehensive national picture of freight flow and a baseline forecast to support our policy studies.
 
Grow America provides $18 billion over 6-years for targeted investments in the nation’s transportation system that will improve the movement of freight.  This $18 billion will be limited to transportation projects that clearly contribute to improve freight transportation.
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The Grow America Act will give shippers transportation providers and freight workers a seat at the table for making investment decisions, including ITS.  The $18 billion in grants will be award for projects as identified by states, communities, and ports with transportation stakeholders to identify infrastructure projects that serve a public and immediate need to improve the movement of freight.
Grow America will better allight planning among the Federal Government, states, ports, and local communities to improve decision making.  Grow America incentivizes States to collaborate and establish long term freight strategic plans that will help inform a National Freight Strategic Plan by the U.S. DOT that will serve as a basis for how the Department can best support the needs of shippers, comsumers, ports, communities, states, and transportation provides.  States that pursue sound planning involving multimodal stakeholders to improve freight mobility will be rewarded with direct formula funding to support game-changing freight investment.  States that coordinate with neighboring States to improve multimodal freight corridors will als be considered for additional funding to support those investments. 
If we don’t make these investemnts, one study estimates that roadway congestion delays cost shippers approximately $10 billion per year. The Americal Society of Civil Engineers found the economy could lose almost $1 tillion in business and sales a lose 3.5 jobs annually by 2020 if we fail to build our infrastructure to keep pace with growth. 
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Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Applications are needed as part of critical, future infrastructure improvements. 
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One of the technologies the USDOT is working on is the Freight Advanced Traveler Information System. 
USDOT sponsored the FRATIS Prototype and Small-Scale Demonstration largely in part because of the major issues in goods movement efficiency, such as
Lack of information sharing between trucking and terminals significantly impedes intermodal freight system efficiency
Lack of freight-specific traveler information such as terminal wait times and dynamic routing options
In August 2012, the USDOT’s Dynamic Mobility Applications (DMA) Program initiated the development of a prototype of the Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) bundle of applications, and a small-scale demonstration of the prototype for assessing the effectiveness and impacts of a regional-based FRATIS implementation. The FRATIS concept seeks innovations to transform freight mobility, including methods to:
Leverage freight mobility information technologies under development in the private sector regarding freight traveler information, dynamic routing, and drayage optimization;
Integrate these technologies with public sector Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and sensor information available for roadways in major metropolitan regions; and
Facilitate accelerated public-private deployment of FRATIS applications.
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Los Angeles-Gateway Region  Developing the FRATIS applications to address the dynamic travel planning around the marine terminals and queues to move cargo out of the port more efficiently.  Used Bluetooth-based terminal queue management system.
Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas This site is also testing terminal queue time using Bluetooth  and DSRC 5.9GHz technology (SAE Standard J2735-2009) Optimize drayage opportunities in coordination with rail and local truck drayage companies
South Florida Similar focus as the other two sites, but includes emergency response capability to FRATIS that would realign the purpose of freight transportation to bring in supplies during an emergency such as a hurricane.
Preliminary Implications for Deployment: Integration of FRATIS or similar technologies with existing systems within a company is essential.  Expansion beyond individual companies necessitates a regional, probably public or public-private partnership, entity to successfully deploy and operate.  Additional USDOT-Sponsored  FRATIS Activities:  1) FRATIS Los Angeles Expansion (In-progress) and 2) TxDOT I-35 Corridor Optimization for Freight (COfF) (In-progress)
Next Steps for FRATIS Prototypes: Complete baseline data collection, Implement FRATIS prototypes, Conduct independent assessment, DMA FRATIS Bundle, Conduct Intermodal Freight Technology Working Group (IFTWG) Meetings and Identify additional FRATIS project concepts
FRATIS Prototype Key Challenges
Institutional
Strong partnership and  continuous commitment to the project
Operational disruptions and partner staffing availability
Driver and dispatcher acceptance
Technical
Data exchange interoperability between back-end systems
Customization of optimization program for each site
Bluetooth equipment outages due to weather and  staff interference
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A lack of freight advanced traveler information has negative effects on the efficient movement of freight transportation, planning of freight daily work activities, logistics management systems, environment of neighboring communities, energy consumptions, and safety of the traveling public.  Conversely, the slide shows the many benefits of providing ITS – advanced travel information. 
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Bundles will consist of two application levels:
Basic application, developed from open-source data and services and available in the public realm
“Value-added” commercial application, targeted at existing, subscriber user groups.
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Automated vehicles will not suddenly appear on our roads, but automated features that promise to improve the safety and efficiency of freight movement are already being introduced.
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On trucks, sensor systems combine adaptive speed control, automatic braking, lane-departure warning systems, and vehicle-to-vehicle communications. By allowing sensors on one truck to communicate with sensors on another truck, partially automated trucks could soon travel more closely together to improve fuel efficiency, in a practice known as truck platooning or truck trains.
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Notes:
This is the goal of the US DOT automation program
Its near term purpose is to support wide-scale deployment of automated vehicle systems. It says ‘partially automated vehicle systems’ because this acknowledges the point that there are multiple levels of automation and the USDOT can enable a wide range of levels, which could include partial to full automation.
We want to launch a robust road vehicle automation program
                                                               i.      Understanding overall costs and benefits
                                                             ii.      NHTSA on reliability, cybersecurity, human factors
                                                            iii.      FHWA on operational and policy impacts, including long term planning guidance
                                                           iv.      FTA on vehicle automation and personal mobility applications uses
                                                             v.      Harmonizing testing and certification
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Taken together, these outcomes should materially reduce port congestion and transportation costs.
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We provide a wealth of information about our program on the ITS JPO website. You can also sign up to receive updates through our e-mail newsletter, Facebook page and Twitter.  We hold numerous free webinars, trainings and public meetings throughout the year, which are advertised through our website and communication media.
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In Beyond Traffic an example is provided on the twin ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles.  These two ports process hundreds of billions of dollars worth of imports and exports each year.  Imports arrive on giant container ships and are transferred to trucks and trains which takes the cargo to intermodal transfers center, and from there to warehouses and stores across the country.  Today our freight system is under serious strain and our busiest ports, like Los Angels/Long Beach are becoming increasing congested.  There are challenges, and also opportunties for improving this congestion. 
A 2015  survey by the Gateway Cities, COG captured responses from over 400 truck drivers and 200 dispatchers in the Los Angeles and Long Beach Port communities focused on traveler information. 
As you can see from this slide the main source of communication that is used to share traveler information is the CB Radio and AM/FM Radio.   The survey responses also indicated that there is a low adoption of ITS technology to support the sharing of traveler information.
The same survey also asked the group of truck drivers and dispatchers how is the traveler information they receive is being used today to make key decisions in their day-to-day operation.  The primary use of the traveler information focuses on making decisions on whether to change a route either En Route or at a departure from a port terminal.
The group was also asked to rate the value of proposed improvements in receiving better traveler information.  The top three areas these groups wanted for improvement in traveler information include:  1) Better information on Port Queue Processing Times (Note today these times can exceed an hour in some situations) 2) Better information on Fastest Real-Time Routes from origin to destination 3) Better information on Traffic Bottleneck Locations
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Large data sets are also needed as the basis for new applications to support mobility, safety, and greater efficiency of transportation assets. The availability of enterprise data is crucial for continued innovation. For our future transportation system to work seamlessly, the data will be as critical as asphalt, concrete, and vehicles.
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We are now shifting from a research data environment to a connected data operational system uniting traffic management and automated vehicles, and integrating transportation with energy, public safety, and other coordinated public services in a connected society,
We recognize that several trends in data generation and communication strongly affect transportation, including:
The rise of the “Internet of Things” and the role that vehicles play in that network,
Connected vehicles of all sorts will connect to numerous other data-driven systems in our society, presenting the possibility of new systemic efficiencies, but also presenting new risks.
A transition away from achieving mobility through vehicle ownership and toward accessing mobility as a service. 
Along with the rest of society, transportation will be transformed by automation – hence a USDOT program to plan for the oversight of a growing fleet of autonomous vehicles – and the integration of transportation into the “connected city” of the future,
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By 2020, there will be 50-100 Billion “things” connected to the internet, generating 35 zeta-bytes of data per year.  There will be tremendous sources of IoT data (from vehicles, mobile devices, and smart infrastructure such as Parking Spots, IoT Lighting, IoT Noise Sensors, IoT Environmental Sensors, IoT Shipping Containers/Freight, IoT Roadways, IoT Perimeter Detection) that can come together to really make a difference.
Connected cities contain and use a collective “intelligent infrastructure” that can sense what’s around them and/or their own status. These data allow city operators to know how the city is operating and how its performance can be enhanced using real-time information to monitor performance and trends of the city – transportation is part of that.
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