Connected Vehicles for a Connected World

Michael Schagrin
Research & Innovative Technology Administration
US Department of Transportation
January 2008

Powerpoint Version

What VII will Enable …. Safety

Imagine :

  • Your vehicle knows the speed and location of approaching vehicles
  • Your vehicle can “see” vehicles you can’t see
  • Your vehicle knows roadway conditions that you can’t see

What VII will Enable….. Mobility

Imagine :

  • You had traffic information on all your potential routes and modes of travel
  • You could compare different routes and modes of travel based on traffic speed
  • Your navigation unit could reroute you when an accident occurs during travel

What VII will Enable …. Consumer Services

Imagine :

  • You can quickly download movies and other high content material into your vehicle
  • You can find and reserve available parking spaces before you arrive
  • You can pay for tolls, parking, and your morning cup of coffee automatically from within your vehicle
  • Your vehicle can tell you when it needs servicing and direct you to a service station

What VII will Enable …. Agency Management & Operations


  • Managing your system if you knew real-time travel speeds and densities, braking activities, and roadway temperatures for all major facilities
  • Planning for growth when you know complete traffic patterns around development
  • Having the information needed to measure and track system performance

USDOT’s Research and Demonstration Program

A Change in Strategy

  • Previous approach
    • Deployment decision by OEMs, US DOT, state transportations agencies in 2010 with synchronized deployments beginning around 2012
    • Key technology for vehicle to infrastructure communications was Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)
    • Expectation that the infrastructure build out could be substantially funded by the Federal government
  • Current approach
    • Open up the architecture to allow for non-DSRC technology
    • Work with aftermarket suppliers to enable VII capabilities sooner
    • Demonstrate a subset of capabilities that VII can provide in a few, high concentration operational test sites
    • Support growth in geographic coverage and functionality over time
    • Leverage new technologies and private industry developments
    • Learn from related state and university research

Program Goals and Objectives

  • Goals
    • Nationwide system
    • Enable the full range of safety, mobility, and commercial applications
    • Adaptable to technology evolution
  • Objectives:
    • Near term – to demonstrate current capability and provide for more rapid deployment of VII applications
    • Mid term – to expand both the system functionality and geographic coverage of the system
    • Long term – to enhance system performance

Multi-Phased Approach

  • Phase 1 – Field operational test site(s) established to demonstrate and test what can be done today
  • Phase 2 – Applied research and development activities to support the longer term needs of the program in areas of technology, policy, and public agency applications
  • Phase 3 – Monitoring and assessing new technologies that can enhance system performance

Phase 1: SAFE TRIP-21

Safe and Efficient Travel Through Innovation and Partnerships

Develop field test bed(s) to:

  • Accelerate availability of travel information and services to provide users with greater situational awareness of safety hazards, congestion bottlenecks, and route and modal choices
  • Evaluate impacts, value of integrated infrastructure for travelers and commercial operators, and market readiness of near-term applications, including but not limited to those using DSRC
  • Leverage other U.S. DOT activities such as the Urban Partnership Agreements, the Corridors of the Future Sites, and others.
  • Leverage existing systems and capabilities (i.e., 511, Highway Advisory radio, vehicle-based collision warning technologies, traffic reporting services, etc., and state, local, university, and industry research )

Phase 1: SAFE TRIP-21 (2007 – 2008)

Key Dates and Milestones

  • Request for Information (RFI) released December 18, 2007
    • Information requested on partnering for Phase 1 test site development
    • Information requested on test site characteristics, applications and their readiness, innovative technologies
  • RFI responses expected by January 11, 2008
  • Site(s) operational and evaluation to begin December 1, 2008
  • Interim findings will be transitioned toward mid- and longer-term ongoing research in VII Phases 2 and 3
  • SAFE TRIP-21 Final Report in January 2010 (Interim reports in 09)

Phase 2 – Enable a Phased Nationwide Deployment

  • Fund applied research and development activities:
    • In the areas of enabling technologies, public applications, and institutional issues
    • To support a phased, nationwide deployment of VII capabilities between 2008 and 2015
  • Key Objectives:
    • Assess and demonstrate capabilities of various technical solutions
    • Identify phased roll-out strategies to support rapid deployment of near-term capabilities and enable the long term vision
    • Analyze alternative business models and governance structures
    • Develop technical and policy solutions to address security, privacy, liability and other institutional issues
    • Develop key applications for the public sector
    • Leverage results of operational testsand state and university research to improve and refine research and deployment approaches

VII National System Network Build Up

Phase 2 – Enable a Phased Nationwide Deployment
Proof of Concept (POC) Testing – MI and CA

  • Testing of public, private, and e-commerce applications
    • Testing to be completed in March with results published in June 2008
  • Validate the vehicle to roadside and vehicle to vehicle capabilities in a multi-application environment
  • Demonstrate that VII technical approach ensures anonymity, privacy, and security
  • The Michigan POC test includes:
    • 25 vehicles, 57 intersection and freeway locations near Detroit à approximately 47 square miles of coverage
    • Vehicle based communications is DSRC for both V2I and V2V
    • Backhaul communications is a combination of 3G, WiMax, and Mesh
  • Scheduled to operate through June ’08
  • Currently preparing an RFI to solicit input and expressions of interest in:
    • Using the test bed by other private and public sector entities and
    • Options for continued operation and maintenance

Most of the VII POC Testing will be conducted in the suburbs of Detroit. RSEs placed along several stretches of highway as well as multiple signalized intersections.

Michigan Test Bed - Private Applications

Michigan Test Bed – Public Applications

VII California Infrastructure

  • Access to 60 miles of Right-of-Way, including hills and “urban canyons”
    • Three, parallel, 20 mile long North/South routes: US 101; SR 82 (El Camino Real); and I-280
  • 12 RSEs are installed and operating, with approved FCC licenses
    • Mix of freeway / intersection locations
  • 28 more RSE sites have been selected and surveyed
    • Installation of RSEs will continue through August 2008
  • Backhaul: wired (T1 lines) and wireless (3G cellular; WiMAX, Municipal WiFi)
    • Communications choice is site dependent
  • Back End Servers
    • One at the 511 TIC in Oakland; one at PATH in Richmond
    • IP-based; additional servers can be located anywhere

VII California Testbed

Southern Peninsula, San Francisco Bay Area

VII Technical Innovations

  • Most extensive DSRC/WAVE protocol testbed (56 RSEs)
  • Prioritization of radio access & messages for safety (while supporting other applications)
  • Multi-channel DSRC radios with channel switching
  • Single radio will support diverse applications simultaneously
    • One-way, 2-way, individual, and broadcast communications
    • Supports many vehicles simultaneously and scaleable to large population
  • Groundbreaking method to maintain privacy & anonymity while ensuring legitimacy of messages & data
  • Implement common vehicle interface for V2V across OEMs

Phase 2 – Enable a Phased Nationwide Deployment
Technology and Testing – Going Forward

  • Continue technical research to support deployment
  • Additional research anticipated in the areas of:
    • Communications
    • Mapping
    • Security
    • Positioning
    • Standards
  • Enable future testing needs
    • Ensure testing capabilities are available to support public and private interests
    • Ensure test bed activities are working to common standards and interfaces

Phase 2 – Enable a Phased Nationwide Deployment
Applications – Activities Underway

    • Violation warning at traffic signal and stop sign controlled intersections
    • Prototype development complete summer 2008
    • Field operational test option being examined
  • Vehicle to Vehicle Communications
    • Develop architecture and message sets
    • Develop relative positioning technology using DSRC
    • Develop and verify objective test procedures
    • Applications being examined include:
      • Emergency Electronic Brake Light
      • Forward Collision Warning
      • Intersection Movement Assist
      • Blind Spot Warning + Lane Change Warning
      • Do-Not-Pass Warning
      • Control Loss Warning
    • Assessment of benefits both with autonomous systems and DSRC alone
      • Initial test platform to be established mid-2008 with final project results end of 2009

Phase 2 – Enable a Phased Nationwide Deployment
Applications – Going Forward

  • Begin development of deployment oriented applications
    • Mobility applications using vehicle probe data
      • Traveler information
      • Traffic Management
    • Transit operations
    • Commercial vehicle operations
    • Road weather information (building on current USDOT/NWS research)
    • Electronic payment for tolling
  • Leverage results of existing and future test and evaluation activities
  • Public sector application workshop(s) to be held in spring 2008
    • Identify real world needs for input into Concept of Operations and Requirements documents
    • Provide basis for private sector development of products and services

Phase 2 – Enable a Phased Nationwide Deployment
Institutional Issues

  • Research to overcome potential institutional barriers to deployment
  • Activities underway and to be initiated in 2008
    • Privacy policy framework (complete)
    • Benefit-cost analysis (underway)
    • Legal research (underway):
      • Patent search
      • Liability analysis for public agencies and private partners
      • Analysis of potentially influential federal legislation
      • Identification of potential state legal and regulatory hurdles
    • Data ownership and access rights (pending)
    • Network ownership and access rights (pending)
    • Capabilities and limitations of the 5.9GHz spectrum allocation (ongoing)

Phase 3: Monitor Cutting Edge Technology

  • Monitor and assess developing technology that may be incorporated into the VII system to enhance system performance, including:
    • Advancements in mesh networks for vehicle to vehicle communications
    • Mobile WiMax
    • 4G cellular
    • Low cost inertial navigation
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