Research Archive

3.4 Examples of Current Technology Deployments

There are many examples of technology applied to public transportation. Table 3-4 (later in this section) highlights the 11 federally funded FTA/HHS operational field tests that apply ITS technologies to enable/improve human service transportation coordination. The table includes the project status, description of the field test, technologies used, populations served, funding sources, and basic service characteristics. It is interesting to note how many technologies have been demonstrated in rural and small urban areas. This is due in part to the lower initial capital investment required to install and test the technologies, particularly if they are part of a coordinated procurement effort. It also reflects the fact there have been capital funds available for technology applications either through traditional funding sources (e.g., TEA-21 funding under Sec. 5310 Elderly and Disabled programs and Sec. 5311 Rural programs) or through ITS demonstrations grants.

In addition to the 11 field tests described in the table, this section highlights several examples of the implementation of emerging and proven transit ITS strategies.

3.4.1 Autonomous Dial-A-Ride Transit (ADART) in Corpus Christi, TX [61] – Prototype Technology for Automated Dispatching.

Autonomous Dial-A-Ride Transit (ADART) began operating in Corpus Christi, TX, in late 2003. ADART, developed with funding from the FTA, is a prototype technology that is the first automated distributed dispatching service in the country and provides door-to-door service in smaller sized vehicles. Corpus Christi is a city of about 300,000 residents. It has an established public transportation system and a region-wide, state-of-the-art radio system that serves as the communications backbone for ADART.

The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA), a local transportation provider, has a good working relationship with other local entities like the police department, emergency services and other transportation providers through an interagency working agreement.

ADART is a subscription-type service that requires all customers to be registered before requesting a trip. Once registered, a customer can book a recurring or occasional trip up to two hours before the requested pickup time. The trip request can be made via the Internet or with a touch-tone telephone. The request is electronically received, logged, and routed wirelessly to an ADART vehicle. Computers onboard the vehicles determine appropriate pick-up and drop-off times, consistent with time windows indicated at the time of booking the trip. The acceptance of the trip request and scheduling of the trip is completely automated. The ADART concept is unique in that the only human involvement in this whole endeavor is the user requesting the trip.

The list of possible ADART applications was narrowed to paratransit services, welfare-to-work trips, service to university students, feeder service at the end of bus routes, late evening and weekend service, and service to high-employment areas. Although many technological elements of the project worked well, the needs of users were not completely addressed by the optimization algorithm used for paratransit operations, and therefore, community acceptance has not been as strong as desired.

3.4.2 Wheels of Wellness in Philadelphia, PA [62]- Coordination through Brokerage

Wheels of Wellness ("Wheels") is a large, non-profit, demand-response brokerage system operating in the greater Philadelphia area. It provides transportation for customers in the Medical Assistance Program, which is funded by the Department of Public Welfare. Wheels is aggressively pursuing technology improvements that will move the system to a fully integrated system incorporating automated scheduling, automatic vehicle location, data messaging, mobile (non-paper) manifests, and Smart Cards. Wheels operates using both contracted and volunteer drivers. The contracted drivers represent 8 carriers and 229 vehicles. Some trips also are brokered through local cab services.

Wheels of Wellness provide more than 5,000 contracted trips daily and averages 100 volunteer trips per day. Wheels operates the call center, schedules trips, tracks carrier vehicles, handles customer complaints, and monitors service. Wheels owns and maintains all of the MDC and AVL equipment. Wheels receives funding from various sources at the Federal, State, and local level, including Medicaid. The software includes a billing module, which facilitates data collection and reporting.

Although most trips require an advance reservation, same-day changes are facilitated through the MDCs and are accommodated when possible. All carriers are networked into the system so they can see the routing and scheduling information. Driver manifests are transmitted electronically, although paper copies of driver manifests are provided to the carriers each day as a back-up.

Flint Mass Transportation Authority (MTA) in Flint, MI – Coordination with Decentralization.

Flint MTA approached coordination through decentralization and then used technology to assist in improving their operations in this type of environment. A single service center was decentralized into 11 separate centers in communities throughout the county for which the Flint MTA provides service, allowing the paratransit service to offer specialized attention to their clients. These service centers are more responsive and the vehicles travel fewer miles.

Although the service centers are decentralized, they still coordinate their activities as a single transit provider. Flint MTA has used technology to maintain a central database and client file which are accessible at all 11 centers. Technology allows Flint MTA to provide information via the Internet; they will soon schedule rides over the telephone using Interactive Voice Response (IVR). Routing and scheduling software has also increased the efficiency of the scheduling and trip reporting processes. In general, the use of technology has made access and operations more convenient; for example, since client information is coordinated between the 11 service centers, wheelchair passengers do not have to transfer between vehicles when traveling across the county. Therefore, vehicles may easily travel outside their service area and even pick up passengers as they pass through.

3.4.3 TriMet in Portland, OR – Coordination of Accessibility on All Modes

Much of TriMet's efforts focus on coordination with other organizations that can benefit from the technologies they all use. For example, TriMet is a large and diverse transit agency that requires an ITS communications infrastructure to coordinate activities, yet the cost of installing fiber-optic connectivity is expensive. Therefore, TriMet shared this cost with the City of Portland since the City could also use the connectivity and data at emergency medical centers in the same area. In addition to maximizing the use and cost of hardware, TriMet has recognized the need for reliable and systematic data: it uses a single commercial database management system for its data, which eliminates data compatibility and staff training issues. Lastly, TriMet has used physical coordination to simplify its system design: fixed route bus operations and light rail operations work in the same facility and share an operations command center, which helps address incidents efficiently.

In addition to these physical and architecture changes, TriMet has continually used technology to assist all communities, including using automated scheduling and dispatch, silent alarm buttons on buses, video cameras with real-time viewing, onboard displays, audible enunciators, tracking technology (via TriMet's custom-built transit tracker), and trip planners as well as providing transit data free of charge to way-finding devices.

3.4.4 Reach Your Destination Early (RYDE) in Kearney, NE – Goal Setting Using ITS Architecture

RYDE knew that technology could help it in meeting increasing demand; decision makers felt that developing, implementing, and maintaining an ITS architecture was necessary prior to choosing individual technologies. RYDE found that it can be difficult for managers to understand the concept of an ITS architecture; yet, in RYDE's case, it helped "planners communicate assets, relationships, and desired outcomes." [63] The process that was followed and the mindset that was adopted in developing this architecture have been considered innovative by many evaluators.

3.4.5 OmniLink in Prince William County, VA – Fixed Route Flex Service Aids All Users

Although OmniLink has specific routes and stop locations, the buses will deviate up to ¾ of a mile from the fixed route to provide demand-response service. The service is not considered paratransit because it is not door-to-door; riders must call ahead (at least two hours in advance) to request an off-route pick-up (that is within the 3/4 of a mile radius). This flexible service has become an alternative to the ADA requirement for complementary paratransit. "OmniLink uses GPS-based AVL and mobile data terminals (MDT) to track vehicle location, count boardings and alightings, and provide on-time performance feedback (both real-time and predicted) to dispatchers and operators." [64]

3.4.6 Municipal Railway in San Francisco, CA – Remote Infrared Audible Signals (RIAS)

This technology provides mobility assistance specifically for the visually impaired. RIAS provides directional information that allows a blind traveler to navigate through areas where the system is deployed. The individual user has a handheld receiver device which gives an audible message (through a speaker or headset) from the infrared sign when the user points the device at it. The infrared transmitters are placed in locations such as doors, ticket counters, exits, and amenities. Those with cognitive disabilities may also benefit from this technology because they sometimes require detailed and precise directional information. The transmitters are deployed at more than 22 sites, including transit stations, bus stations, public facilities, and some private facilities.

3.4.7 Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) in Suburban Detroit, MI

SMART, which serves a three-county area, has used shared integration software for routing and scheduling. Their centralized technology is provided to their community partners via free access to the scheduling software and free technical assistance from SMART personnel (which includes providing help with record generation, maintenance support, service analysis, and system training.) The SMART system "is readily scalable to expand its capacity if needed at a minimal cost." [65] The software that is used is largely off-the-shelf, reducing the cost of the system.

3.4.8 Utah Transit Agency Transfer Connection Protection

The Utah Transit Authority (UTA) implemented a Transfer Connection Protection (TCP) system to improve the reliability of transfers from the higher frequency light rail TRAX trains to the lower frequency bus services. The CP system examines the status of TRAX trains and issues a "hold at {station name} until {time}" message to buses waiting at the connecting rail stations via the bus' onboard MDT if the lateness of train is within a pre-determined threshold (e.g., 3 minutes). The system was completed and tested in January 2002 prior to the Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City.

TCP is an intelligently integrated system that aims to improve the reliability of rail-to-bus connections. The cost of the TCP system is relatively low compared to other transit ITS systems. The moderate capital cost is achieved by utilizing the existing system data (e.g., train status, schedules, etc.) and the delivery mechanism (e.g., MDT, radio data server, bus and train radio systems) already deployed for other ITS functions. The operating and maintenance costs also are moderate because the TCP operation is fully automated.

3.4.9 Ventura County Transportation Commission – Smart Passport [66] (Integrated Fare Collection in Ventura, CA)

Between January 1996 and October 1999, an automated, integrated, transit-fare collection system was field tested in Ventura County. The project was funded by Caltrans and USDOT.

The purpose of the project was to create a seamless fare payment system across transit agencies in the region. It was hoped that the system would encourage, accommodate, manage, and assess travel patterns of passengers among transit systems. In addition, the transit agencies involved hoped to improve data collection and reporting processes. The payment card system was devised based on Smart Card technologies and called the Smart Passport. The Ventura County Transportation Commission (VCTC) coordinated the project. The benefits that VCTC hoped to achieve were:

  • Regional payment system coordination.
  • Seamless regional travel.
  • The concept of "one account" or one payment device for regional transportation.
  • Cost sharing among partners.

Due to problems with the system, the project did not realize the expected benefits, but instead resulted in a list of lessons learned to be applied to any future implementations of the system. The field test was considered to be a positive step toward regional, multi-agency coordination.

Initial support came from eight transit operators interested in an integrated fare system, a seamless transit system, and improved data collection and reporting processes. These operators were already cooperating to devise an integrated transit system before the Smart Passport project.

VCTC and the participating agencies signed memorandums of understanding stating that VCTC would act as lead agency and would be solely responsible for contractual and financial issues. Surveys were conducted to determine users' opinions of the Smart Passport. As a result of the project, a set of issues was identified that transportation planners and service providers need to examine before planning or implementing a multi-agency fare collection system.

3.4.10 Tahoe Coordinated Transit System (CTS) in Lake Tahoe, California/Stateline, Nevada – Integrated Operation of Public and Private Transportation Resources.

The South Lake Tahoe area is nearing successful deployment of a coordinated transit system (CTS) that serves the needs of residents, visitors, and both public and private stakeholders. The project began in 2000, when the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency (TRPA) received Federal funding for their innovative concept of a coordinated transit system. The CTS vision was to implement advanced technologies that would enable integrated operation of existing public and private transportation resources to provide more effective and cost-efficient services to both residents and visitors.

With this vision in mind, public- and private-sector stakeholders joined together to generate plans for the CTS. The end result was a coordinated transit system involving several advanced technologies:

A shared computer-aided dispatch (CAD) center to manage fleet operations for all transit services in South Lake Tahoe.

An automated trip reservation system to automate paratransit fleet dispatching operations. This includes strategically located trip reservation kiosks in the South Lake Tahoe area to facilitate and increase tourist use of the transit system. It also includes an interactive voice response (IVR) phone-reservation system.

A common set of tools for all transit vehicles, including automated vehicle location (AVL) and radio data and voice communication equipment, as well as mobile data terminals MDTs for all paratransit vehicles.

The institutional scope of the CTS project is very large and complex, encompassing government entities from one city and two counties in two States. The CTS stakeholders represent public planning organizations, public transit providers, and private tourist destinations (five casinos and one ski resort, which formerly provided their own transportation services). The regional planning agency, TRPA, has been responsible for funding management, grant administration, contracting, grant compliance, and project management.

Throughout deployment, the overriding challenges have been coordinating multiple local and State jurisdictions and accommodating public and private sector interests. Many issues, such as ongoing funding and asset ownership, become far more complex in a multi-jurisdictional, public-private environment. One of the more difficult issues encountered in this project was determining how to distribute passengers to the participating casinos equitably. The fear is that customers would have a tendency to get off at the first stop. The "first stop algorithm" concept was designed to address this issue by proposing that CTS automatically vary the order of stops and keep track of how many passengers are dropped at each to maintain an equitable distribution of customers.

Table 3-4. Rural Operational Field Tests – FTA/HHS Coordination
Project Name Description Technologies / Features Populations Served Funding / Services / Trip Types Characteristics
Client Referral Ridership, and Financial Tracking System (CRRAFT), NM Judith Espinosa, Director
Eric Holm, Program Manager
ATR Institute Estimated Completion 07/05
Web-based software program integrates human service transportation referrals with daily rural public transit operations. Assists rural transit agencies and human service providers certify and schedule trips for human service clients, track riders, bill trips, and generate reports. Smart Card system used to pay for and track trips. Call center for Medicaid clients to book trips.
  • Web based client referral, ridership, and financial tracking (CRRAFT) software.
  • Smart Card system (includes contact-less Smart Card, GPS, and hand-held computers), called Intelligent Coordinated Transit (ICTransit).
  • Low income.
  • FTA Sec. 5311.
  • FTA Sec. 3037 (JARC).
  • FTA Sect. 5310.
  • Welfare-to-Work through NM Workforce Develop. Groups.
  • TAN.
  • 28 rural transit agencies (8 Section 5311, 8 Section 3037, 12 for both funding programs)
  • Smart Card system is being tested by 10 transit providers
Northland Healthcare Alliance (NHA), ND Barbara Wickel
Northland Healthcare Alliance Estimated Completion: 07/06
Web portal (centralized online transportation information module) where the public transportation providers, human service centers, and other service professionals can locate information on all forms of transportation available within and between each city in North Dakota.
  • Web site.
  • Seniors.
  • Low. income
  • General public.
  • Community Access Program – CAP (medical, education, nutrition, employment, daycare, recreation, social events).
  • NHA operates in 14 communities in central and western North Dakota and 2 tribal reservations.
Northern Shenandoah Valley
Mobility Program
Mike Hite, Principal Consultant
Mobility Strategies

Grant Recipients: Phase 1: Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation Phase 2: Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission Estimated Completion: 09/06
Phase I: Alpha test of a web-based coordinated dispatching system that allows transportation providers to share scheduling and routing information with other social service organizations that do not have transportation resources (i.e., vehicles). The agencies without transportation resources are then able to request rides for their clients from the agencies that provide transportation services, as appropriate and available. Includes the development of a Medicaid bridge and billing software, and the installation of AVL on 10 vehicles.
  • Web-based coordinated. dispatching software
  • GPS AVL system.
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income.
  • General public.
  • Medical, employment, and social service trips.
  • 10 agencies with coordinated dispatching system (6 own vehicles and 4 are "transportation consumers") – AVL on 10 vehicles.
Phase 2: Development of institutional and technical requirements for and a pilot demonstration of a Smart Card system. The Smart Card system will include the following functions: trip payment, client information and verification, funding allocation, and billing. The system includes MDTs that will provide the driver manifest and read the Smart Cards.
  • Contact-less Smart Card system.
  • MDTs ($500k – $800k per vehicle).
  • Seniors.
  • Persons with disabilities.
  • Low income.
  • Medical, employment, and social service trips.
  • 10 agencies.
  • 30 vehicles.
JAUNT, Charlottesville, VA Kevan Danker, Assistant Director
434-296-3184 x102
JAUNT Estimated Completion: 05/05
Automated, voice enabled, 24/7 telephone reservation system for booking, confirming, and canceling trips on JAUNT, a regional coordinated transportation system that provides transportation services throughout Charlottesville, VA and four surrounding counties. The system will schedule trips, prepare driver manifests, and also notify customers, via telephone, of impending vehicle arrivals. Includes integration with existing Transit ITS technologies (paratransit scheduling system, CAD/AVL, and MDTs).
  • LogicTree enhanced interactive voice response system (uses voice recognition technology).
  • Seniors.
  • Children & youth.
  • Persons with disabilities.
    Low income
  • General public.
  • Headstart.
  • Medicaid.
  • Jefferson Area Board for the Aging – Adults & Group Homes.
  • Association for Retarded Citizens.
  • ADA Services for the City of Charlottesville.
  • Rural DR Public Transportation.
  • Welfare to Work.
  • JAUNT provides transportation services throughout Charlottesville, VA and 4 surrounding counties.
  • 72 vehicles.
  • JAUNT contracts with approx. 50 human service agencies.
LYNX & Polk County, FL Doug Jamison, Project Manager, LYNX Planning
LYNX Completed: 03/05
LYNX and Polk County Transit Services (PCTS) will leverage existing vehicles, advanced technologies, and institutional coordination practices to provide more efficient transportation service within rural areas of a five-county region for the general public and human service recipients. The operational test will include an upgraded communications, reservation, and dispatching system and a new Smart Card and billing system. LYNX and PCTS will be able to use advanced technologies so that feeder vans can synchronize with buses, providing door to fixed-route service and fixed-route to door service to expand public transportation service for rural residents (LYNX paratransit to LYNX fixed-routes, PCTS paratransit to LYNX fixed-routes, and PCTS paratransit to PCTS fixed-routes). PCTS only:
  • MDTs
  • IVR system
  • Smart Card system on FR and paratransit services, with credentialing, billing, and reporting capabilities
  • New reservation capabilities to LYNX and PCTS web sites
  • Development of coordination strategies and protocols
  • Note: existing PCTS technologies include GIS, scheduling and dispatching software, web site; existing LYNX technologies include GIS, scheduling and dispatching software, AVL/CAD, MDTs, magnetic stripe card-equipped fareboxes (FR only), web site, Medicaid electronic billing
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income
  • General public
  • Medicaid
  • Critical life skills training
  • Nutrition and life sustaining
  • Education and training (future)
  • Employment / vocational rehabilitation (future)
  • Polk County:
    • Fixed route: 11 vehicles
    • DR: 28 vehicles
  • LYNX:
    • Fixed route: 234 vehicles
    • DR 173 vehicles
Maryland Upper Shore Transit (MUST) Trina Trotman, Regional Planner
Maryland Transit Administration

John General, CEO
Chesapeake Bay Region Technical Center of Excellence Estimated Completion: 10/06
MUST coordinates paratransit service within a five-county rural region in the Upper Eastern Shore of Maryland using Transit ITS technologies. The operational test will build upon the coordination efforts of fixed-route service of three rural transit operators (USTAR, Queen Anne's County Ride, Delmarva Community Transit) in this same region.
  • Web-based computerized scheduling/dispatching software
  • AVL
  • MDTs
  • Electronic rider ID card system (Smart Cards) for trip tracking, and potential electronic fare payment
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income
  • General public
  • Medicaid
  • Welfare-to-Work
  • MUST provides transportation services, via 3 operators, within a 5-county rural region in the Upper Eastern Shore of Maryland
Cape Ann, MA Joe Randazza, Assistant Administrator
Cape Ann Transportation Authority Estimated Completion: 10/05
Cape Ann Transportation Authority (CATA) will demonstrate the integration of fixed-route and paratransit operations and provide same-day service using Transit ITS technologies. A major goal is to shift passengers from over-committed paratransit service to underutilized fixed-route service.
  • Automated scheduling/ dispatching
  • AVL
  • MDTs
  • Integrated databases
  • Traveler information over the Internet and telephone
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income
  • Veterans
  • General public
  • Medicaid
  • Early intervention
  • Veterans programs
  • CATA provides service in 4 communities in Mass.
  • Fixed route: 20 buses; 9 routes
  • Paratransit: 9 vehicles
  • 400,000 trips per year
CARTS – Austin, TX David Marsh, Executive Director
Capital Area Rural Transportation System Estimated Completion: 08/07
The Capital Area Rural Transportation System (CARTS) will conduct an operational test that: Integrates the Lone Star Card technology used by the Texas Department of Human Services (TDHS) with the Transit ITS technologies already being used by CARTS, to track coordinated human service agency ridership and generate required reports
  • Implements a magnetic stripe card system for use by the general public
  • Develops enhanced mapping capabilities to generate geo-based reports for improving planning functions and enhancing the operation of automated scheduling software
  • Upgrades CARTS web site to include trip planning and reservation elements
  • Lone Star magnetic stripe card integration
  • Magnetic stripe card system for the general public
  • Web site upgrades
  • GIS upgrade
  • Note: existing technologies include automated scheduling demand-response software, AVL, digital radios, MDTs, digital radio system
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income
  • General public
  • FTA Section 5311
  • FTA Section 5310
  • Title III (OAA)
  • Title XIX (Medicaid)
  • TANF
  • CARTS provides transportation services in a 9-county rural area surrounding Austin, TX
  • Fixed route: 89,497 trips (2002)
  • Paratransit: 176,496 demand response trips (2002)
  • 88 vehicles
Eastern North Carolina Council Alex Rickard, GIS Coordinator
252-638-3185 x 3021
Eastern Carolina Council Estimated Completion: 03/07
Seven rural transit operators in eastern North Carolina plan to work cooperatively with one another under the Eastern Carolina Council planning agency. The operators will use web-based transit management software to conduct daily administrative activities, schedule trips, and use GIS-based mapping functions to route trips. The operators' separate databases (customer, vehicle, driver, and operational data) will be merged into a single data structure, while protecting private customer data. The system will allow each operator to view trips/routes of the other operators and will offer the opportunity to coordinate trips and share passengers. The system will display a route on a computerized map that can be printed for the driver, including turn-by -turn driving directions. The system will be built to allow outside agencies, to which transit systems must report, to be able to look at forms and reports via the Internet. Users will also be able to generate their own customized reports as necessary.
  • Web-based transit management software that allows a transit operator to view trips of the other participating operators by sharing a common database system
  • GIS-based mapping and routing application
  • Customized report generation
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income
  • Veterans
  • FTA Section 3037 (JARC)
  • Medical care for low income and disabled
  • Women's shelters
  • Veteran's Affairs
  • Adult Day Care
  • 7 rural transit operators within a 9-county region in North Carolina
Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority Larry Harman, GeoGraphics Laboratory Co-Director
Bridgewater State College

Grant Recipient: Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority Estimated Completion: 10/05
Cape Cod Regional Transit Authority (CCRTA) plans to design, deploy, and test a public access node, or "public hot spot," to provide transit traveler information using wireless local area network (WLAN or Wi-Fi) technology at the Hyannis Intermodal Terminal. This will allow human service agencies and tourist agencies to promote the use of Wi-Fi enabled handheld computers for consumers seeking to use public transit.
  • Wi-Fi hotspot at the Hyannis Intermodal Terminal (for public access to transit traveler information)
  • Note: existing technologies include GIS, automated scheduling software, GPS AVL, mobile data computers, EFP (contact Smart Cards and VISA magnetic stripe cards), real-time traveler information systems for transit (vehicle location information and estimated vehicle arrival time information on the web), web-based trip planner, Internet equipped kiosks at major employment sites, web-based reservation and confirmation system for JARC trips; proposed prototype development, using outside funding (not part of this project), of GPS handheld computers for coordination of human services and public transportation
  • Seniors
  • Persons with disabilities
  • Low income
  • General public
  • FTA Section 5310
  • FTA Section 5311
  • FTA Section 3037 (JARC)
  • Medicaid
  • Rehabilitation services
  • Paratransit: 69 vehicles; 169,803 total passengers in 2001
  • Fixed-route: 29 vehicles; 4 year-round routes; 138,322 total passengers in 2001
  • Summer trolleys and shuttles: 6 routes; 170,640 total passengers in 2001
Modoc County, CA Pam Couch, Executive Director
Modoc County Transportation Commission Estimated Completion: 08/06
Modoc County, a rural county in northern California, will adopt and implement the CRRAFT system (see project 6.12a). The system will include an electronic payment component to pay for and track trips. The system will also include a mobility management center for providing integrated public and social service transportation support services.
  • Web based client referral, ridership, and financial tracking (CRRAFT) software
  • Smart Card system
  • Mobility management center (walk-in counter, telephone services, and World Wide Web tools)
  • General public
  • Human service clients

Source: Mitretek Systems (for U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office), "Rural ITS Transit Ops Tests Summary", February 22, 2005. 3.5 Issues and Barriers

  • Various sources including a press release issued in July 2003: "DART to Debut in Corpus Christi, TX." Available on-line at
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (for the U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office), Human Services Transportation A Cross Cutting Study. ITS Applications for Coordinating and Improving Transportation Options for the Elderly, Disabled, or Poor (DRAFT), April 14, 2005, pp. 12-18.
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratories (for the U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office), Human Services Transportation – A Cross-Cutting Study ITS Applications for Coordinating and Improving Transportation Options for the Elderly, Disabled, or Poor (DRAFT,) April 14, 2005.
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratories (for the U.S. Department of Transportation ITS Joint Program Office), Human Services Transportation – A Cross-Cutting Study ITS Applications for Coordinating and Improving Transportation Options for the Elderly, Disabled, or Poor (DRAFT,) April 14, 2005.
  • Ibid.
  • U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Regional Transportation Operations Collaboration and Coordination, FHWA-OP-03-008. (Washington, DC: 2003), page 38.

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