Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems
CICAS Workshop December 9–10, 2004
Appendix B1
Summary of Breakout Session #2: Research Needs

High Priority Research Needs

  • Characterize normal and non-normal driver maneuvers at intersections in varied, real-world test conditions.
    • Need to determine what data is available for mining and what data needs to be collected (e.g., the 100 car study)
    • Need for development of data collection systems and amplified naturalistic driving conditions through a set of intersections
    • Need to evaluate and develop collection techniques (e.g., observational, infrastructure and vehicle sensing)
    • Determine gap selection
    • This will be different for various intersections, but will be less of an issue for simple scenarios
    • Some work being done by CAMP and will be public soon
    • Must start selecting intersections now in order to get baseline data for analysis in 05/06
    • Can begin immediately especially benchmarking of available technologies for flexible implementation
    • Dependent on delivery surrogate safety measures a system for collecting the SSM data
    • This is needed to create the state map and should be started now
    • Dependent on the sensor suite used
    • Dependent on legacy system upgrades, vehicle data comm., control strategies
  • Determine alert timing parameters
    • Need to define what are we warning the drivers about
    • Dependent on characteristics of normal and non-normal driver maneuvers at intersections in varied, real-world test conditions
    • Need a better handle on "acceptable safe vs. unsafe" gaps
    • Current algorithms need to be refined based on how the driver is behaving/driver characteristics data
  • Determine effectiveness of various interface approaches and their interaction with varied timing approaches
    • Coordinate and build on current work including, MN & CA efforts in FY 05
    • Use information from previous FOT
    • DVI work being done by CAMP, VTTI, others
    • Need to work on the issue regarding the vehicle not sending information to the infrastructure for it to make a decision
  • Develop design guidelines and performance specifications for DII
    • Need an operational test system first because effectiveness cannot be measured until prototypes are selected
    • Tests should be performed on a small number of the intersections pre-FOT
    • This should only be done in conjunction with DVI
  • Measure effectiveness of DII
    • Need an operational test system first because effectiveness cannot be measured until prototypes are selected
    • Tests should be performed on a small number of the intersections pre-FOT
    • This should only be done in conjunction with DVI
    • Work should start now and will require iterations
    • First test effectiveness in driving simulator then test in "live" intersection
    • Dependent on current research results
  • Determine preferred modality of DVI (combination of auditory, visual, and haptic alerts)
    • There is already good knowledge of this and existing research findings should be leveraged, as well as ongoing work
    • Evaluate after the test vehicle is built
    • This should only be done in conjunction with DVI
    • Some work already underway, but more research needs to be done
    • Not sure this is applicable to CICAS or is this an OEM issue
  • Refine message content and timing
    • Need to continue current efforts and refine concepts
    • Cannot refine until first message sets defined
    • Each application will require different message sets with overlap
    • This is an OEM issue
  • Add CICAS capabilities or add CICAS interfaces to legacy and advanced traffic controllers
    • Requires specifications on timings
    • Need to provide this critical data NOW!
  • Determine requirements for accuracy of vehicle position
    • Need to develop system architecture and requirements for both infrastructure and vehicle
    • Define levels of accuracy absolute/lane level/relative
    • VTTI has developed some specifications, need to begin providing this for SCP
    • This requires a new detector system
  • Determine requirements for accuracy of vehicle speed, acceleration, braking status, heading angle by in-vehicle sensors, by positioning systems
    • VTTI has developed some specifications, need to begin providing this for SCP
    • Important for infrastructure only models, because this is an infrastructure sensor issue
    • Need requirements for measuring accuracy of all sensors and need concept of operations
    • Vehicle position and kinematics dependent on naturalistic data, other data, prototypes, functional requirements
    • Is iteration of alert algorithms what follows? Need to answer, "What sensors can get you what you need?"
  • Specify infrastructure-vehicle communications
    • Need to understand budget for deployment
    • Need to answer, "What role does DSRC play here?" Need to start discussions about DSRC Message Frequency, testing, etc.
    • OK to assume DSRC is short-term
    • Specify communication parameters, but not specific technology
    • SAE message committee final specification follows testing
    • CICAS protocols should start now
    • Need to standardize the message set
  • Design CICAS protocols to be run over DSRC; design DSRC MAC layer protocols for high density traffic conditions
    • Let's see if it works first
    • Given deployment schedule will be 802.11 xxx anyway
    • Much of this work is being done in VII
    • DSRC is NOT proven and this will be an issue
    • Communication issue, VSC2 will do this
    • Systems architecture and requirements needed
    • Message set is main issue
  • Improve methods to fuse data from multiple sensors on vehicle position
    • Operational systems must precede this event and must be done prior to determining the worthiness of the project
    • For mixed vehicular/infrastructure this is key, but need to solve same detection problems
    • Challenging problem…must work with sparse and dense data
    • Vehicle data depends on DSRC deployment
    • Functional allocation dependent on data from vehicle
    • Cost effectiveness to put inside a vehicle is important
  • Develop understanding of false alarm rate, miss rate, driver acceptance of computations
    • Should occur after FOT
    • Prototype subsystem needed now and available test bed
    • Second phase issue: need to evaluate early test results
    • Dependent on driver reaction to technology reliability
    • Hard to classify "hit" or "miss" when no event occurs

Medium Priority Research Needs

  • Investigate the effects of driver distraction and inattention
    • Dependent on application
    • Dependent on current data collection efforts (e.g., the 100 car study)
    • Long term data collection process needed
  • Investigate long-term driver behavioral adaptation, either positive or negative
    • Need an operational system first
    • Evaluate prototype before we can start the adaptation issue
    • Needs to be examined long term, greater than 5 year period
    • This data will be provided by the FOT
    • Methodology needed for FOT design
    • The DII needs to be optimized
    • Depends on current research results and mining of national databases
    • This may provide a baseline investigation on what worked
    • Key point is none appear promising, not sure that existing data can be mined to extract needed information, I don't think it will give any significant information
    • This is a cheap and easy way to increase the value of the databases, biased towards intersection behaviors
    • May help immediately with needs identification for draft functional requirements
    • Need to identify data requirements and data collection methods
    • Need the development of a more advanced infrastructure data collection system and to run a naturalistic driver study through a set of monitored intersections
    • Look at 100 car study 43,000 hours, 100,000's of intersections (of all kinds) crossing accessible in short term
  • Detection of pedestrians and bicyclists in the intersection
    • Research needs to be done for detection
    • Need a long lead time and this is technically very challenging
    • See UMN work
    • Applies only to GAP acceptance
    • Is this an ITS Tier 2 issue
  • Determine dynamic power and data rate control strategies
    • DSRC and VII design issue
    • Dependent on high DSRC penetration
    • Being worked on, VII issue with ASME
    • Need prototype DSRC radio first
  • Define CICAS message sets and dictionaries for submission to standards developing organizations
    • Need to get concepts refined for detailed design
    • Message sets define further work
  • Determine whether the performance characteristics of various systems architecture meet specified requirements
    • Need to follow a Systems Engineering process
    • This is not well defined and depends on concepts refinement then analysis of architecture and specifications
  • Measure CICAS safety benefits in comparison to other traffic control devices
    • No way to accurately model without well designed FOT
    • Cannot do until CICAS performance is quantified (otherwise just a guess)
    • Need this before the FOT and add as baseline condition
    • Measure CICAS benefits in comparison to unsignalized intersections
  • Determine costs and benefits of alternative CICAS approaches
    • Need available data, especially from car companies and OEM's, ROI, User Demand
    • Cannot do until optimal set is deployed and costs determined

Low Priority Research Needs

  • Refine economic impact models of intersection collisions
    • Need for cost benefits analysis
    • No way to model without well designed FOT
    • Need this before the FOT

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